In Windows 10 Pro or Enterprise, you can use Group Policy to make this change. Open Local Group Policy Editor (Gpedit.msc) and go to
Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components > OneDrive.
Double-click the policy Prevent The Usage Of OneDrive For File Storage and set it to Enabled.
After you restart your PC, you'll find that the OneDrive icon is no longer in the navigation pane and the sync client no longer runs.
On devices running Windows 10 Home, where Group Policy isn't available, you have to edit the registry manually. Using Registry Editor, navigate to HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\OneDrive.
(If that key doesn't exist, you need to create it). Add a new DWORD value, DisableFileSyncNGSC, and set it to 1. Restart the PC to make the policy setting effective.